MBA MARKETING PROJECT :- STUDY ON HOME LOANS
STUDY ON HOME LOANS OF ICICI BANK
Need for the study:
Retail banking has been popular segment to enter into for many banks. In the retail banking, housing sector has been most promising segment which is promising a Comprehensive growth rate of about 30 per cent for the next five years. With the government keen on infrastructure development and announcing various tax Sops housing loan segment has been a tempted area for many banks to enter into housing sector can be bifurcated into organized and unorganized segments with the unorganized segments accounting for over 75 per cent of the housing units constructed.
During the past 4 – 5 years the housing sector helped by the growing housing finance industry has witnessed significant developments.
Housing Finance Evaluation:
Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) was the first housing finance Company to setup operations in India in 1977. After the National Housing Bank Act, 1987, was passed NHB came into existence as a Subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to regulate housing finance companies and provide them with refinancing to supplement their fund requirements.
Public sector banks were allowed to provide housing loans directly to retail clients only in 1988.
SYNOPSIS ON THE STUDY OF HOME LOANS
The home loan scheme of the ICICI bank is named “ICICI Home” and for Salaried persons “Griha Sewa”. It has been a successful product launched by bank’s retail assets division. The home loan disbursement procedure followed by the bank has been undertaken.
The various documents involved and the intricacies in taking a home loan have also been highlighted as a part of my study.
The home loan segment has number of added extensions to its portfolio because of increased competitiveness among the HFIs. An attempt has been made to understand the various extensions and new concepts and the benefits extended by the banks.
Scope of study
• The study covers a period of five years from 2003 to 2008. There are several reasons for selecting this period.
• During the past 5 years the Bank has gone global as a result the company has witnessed many economic and political changes.
• Company has undergone rapid changes in the past 5 years due to many policy decisions relating to capital markets, banking sector & licensing policy.
• The study is limited to only ICICI Bank This study is mainly related to the individuals who are interested in taking home loans from banks to fulfill their dreams.
• The study is mainly related to all the loans provided by ICICI bank only.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY OF HOME LOANS
• The study was mainly conducted to understand the concept of home loan scheme and the eligibility criteria of the customers.
• The study is done to understand the documents involved in the home loan scheme and the repayment methodology adopted by various banks and the HFC‘s (Housing Finance Corporations).
• The innovative home loan schemes and the risk capturing mechanism adopted by the HFIs and the future of the home loan segment has been undertaken as a part of this study
PROFILE OF ICICI BANK
ICICI bank is India’s second-largest bank with total assets of about Rs.2, 513.89 billion (US$ 56.3 billion) at March 31, 2006 and profit after tax of Rs.25.40 billion (US$569million) For the year ended March 31, 2006(Rs.20.05 billion (US$449mn) for the year ended March 31, 2005).ICICI Bank has a network of about 614 branches and extension Counters and over 2,200 ATMs. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking product and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. ICICI Bank set up its international banking group in fiscal 2002 to cater to the cross boarder needs of clients and leverage on its domestic banking strengths to offer products internationally.ICICI Bank currently has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom. Russia and Canada, branches in Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka and Dubai international Finance centre and representative officers in the United States, United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa and Bangladesh.
Our UK subsidiary has established a branch in Belgium. ICICI Bank is the most valuable bank in India in terms of market capitalization.
ICICI Bank’s equity shares are listed in India on the Bombay stock Exchange and the National stock Exchange of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New York stock Exchange (NYSE).
ICICI Bank has formulated a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for its directors and employees. (Click here to view a copy of the code).
At June 5, 2006, ICICI Bank, with free float market capitalization*of about Rs.480.00 billion (US$ 10.8 billion) ranked third amongst all the companies listed on the India stock exchanges.
ICICI Bank was originally promoted in 1994 by ICICI Limited, an India financial institution, and was its wholly-owned subsidiary. ICICI’s shareholding in ICICI Bank was reduced it 46% through a public offering of shares in India in fiscal 1998, an equity offering in the from of ADRs listed on the NYSE in fiscal 2000, ICICI Bank’s acquisition of Bank of Madura Limited in an all-stock amalgamation in fiscal 2001, and secondary market sales by ICICI to institutional investors in fiscal 2001, and 2002.ICICI was formed in 1955 at the initiative of the world Bank, the Government of India and representatives of India industry. The principal objective was to create a development financial institution for providing medium term and long-term project financing to India businesses. In the 1990s, ICICI transformed its Business from a development financial institution offering only project finance to a diversified financial services group offering a wide variety of products and services, both directly and through a number of subsidiaries and affiliates like ICICI Bank. In 1999, ICICI become the first India Company and the first bank or institution from non-Japan Asia to be listed on the NYSE.
After consideration of various corporate structuring alternatives in the context of the emerging competitive scenario in the India banking industry, and the move towards universal banking, the managements of ICICI and ICICI Bank formed the view that the merger of ICICI with ICICI Bank would be optimal strategic alternative for both entities, and would create the optimal legal structure for the ICICI group’s universal banking strategy. The merger would enhance value for ICICI shareholders through the merged entity’s to access to low-cost deposits, greater opportunities for earning fee-based income and the ability to participate in the payment system and provide transaction-bank services. The merger would enhance value for ICICI Bank shareholders through a large capital base and scale of operations seamless access to ICICI’s strong corporate relationship built up over five decades, entry into new business segments, higher market share in various business segments, particularly fee-based services, and access to the vast talent pool of ICICI Bank and its subsidiaries. In October 2001, the Boards of Directors of ICICI and ICICI Bank approved the merger of ICICI and two of wholly-owned retail finance subsidiaries, ICICI personal financial services Limited and ICICI Capital services limited, with ICICI Bank. The merger was approved by shareholders of ICICI and ICICI Bank in January 2002, by the High Court of Gujarat at Ahmedabad in March 2002, and by the High Court of Judicature at Mumbai and the Reserve Bank of India in April 2002.
HOME LOAN SCHEME AND ITS EXTENSIONS
A home loan scheme is generally offered to the person to accommodate finance for purchasing the house or for renovation or extension of the existing house.
The various extensive schemes, which are included in the home loan portfolio, are:
Home Purchase Loan:
This is the basic home loan for the purchase of a new home.
Home Improvement Loans:
These loans are given for implementing repair works and renovations in a home that has already been purchased by you.
Home Construction Loan:
This loan is available for the construction of a new home.
Home Extension Loan:
This is given for expanding or extending an existing home.
For eg: addition of an extra room etc.
Home Conversion Loan:
This is available for those who have financed the present home with a home loan and wish to purchase and move to another home for with some extra funds are required. Through home conversion loan, the existing loan is transferred to the new home including the extra amount required, eliminating the need of pre-payment of the previous loan.
• Attractive loan interest rates.
• Home Loan amounts starting from Rs.2 lacks and ends up to 20lakhs.
• Tern loans up to 20 years.
• Free personal Accident Insurance (Terms & Conditions).
• Insurance options for your home loan at attractive premium.
• Special 100% funding for select properties.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR HOME LOANS
How much can you borrow?
Griha Home Loans range from Rs.1lakh to Rs. 50lakhs. Your repayment period can vary from 1 year to 20 years depending upon your capacity to repay.
Age: - Min: You should be at least 21 years of age.
Max: At the time of loan maturity, you should not exceed 65 years or your
retirement age, whichever is earlier.
You should have completed a minimum of 2 years of service (with a minimum of 1 year in the current job)
You must have an established business or professional practice of not less than 3 years, with a positive net worth and must have posted a net profit for the last 2 years.
Note: Minimum net take home salary of Rs. 6000/- p.m. for salaried employees or annual income of not less than Rs. 1.20lakh for businesspersons/ self-employed professionals. (Spouse/co-applicant’s income can be included in the income computation).
1. Individuals who are salaried or self employed, professionals, businessmen are eligible. Proprietary concerns, HUF, partnership firms or limited companies are not eligible for this loan, where partners at their individual capacity are free to avail this loan.
2. As a customer to enhance the loan eligibility, all HFIs lay down conditions to who be co applicants, al co owners to the property should necessarily be co-applicant. Income of the co owners can be clubbed together to get higher loan eligibility. Minors are not eligible to become co owners, as also friend and relative’s only blood relatives are eligible to take a property jointly.
Some of the acceptable relationships where loan clubbing is possible:
Income clubbing of co – applicants
Combinations Income clubbing
Husband – wife YES
parent – Son YES (if only son)
Parent – Daughter YES (If only child)
Brother- Brother YES (if currently staying together and intend staying together in the new property)
Brother – Sister NO
Sister – Sister NO
Parent – Minor child Not eligible for loan
3. The minimum age for the applicant and the co applicant to become eligible for the commencement oft eh loan is 23 years, and co applicant can be of 18 years of age if their income is not clubbed to calculate the loan eligibility.
4. The maximum age at the time of loan maturity for applicant or co-applicant is 60 years or the retirement age whichever is earlier.
DOCUMENTS INVOLVED IN EVALUATION OF HOME LOAN:
The documentation requirement for various categories of applicants depends on their status. For this purpose all HFIs segregate their employees in different categories. They are:
• Professional or Businessman
The criteria of evaluation changes according to their status. The general documents, which remain same for all the categories, are as follows:
1. Proof of age
Any one of the following is considered for proof of age, they are:
• Voter’s ID card
• PAN card
• Ration card
• Employer’s identity card
• School leaving Certificate
• Birth Certificate
2. Copy of bank statements for the last six months:
Bank statement for the last six months of all operating and salary accounts. Bank statements for the last six months of all current accounts, if self employed. Any other photocopies of investments held, if required by the HFIs
3. Copy of latest credit card statement.
4. Passport size photograph
5. Signature verification by your bankers.
6. Proof of residence:
• Ration Card
• PAN Card
• Rent agreement if any, if you are currently staying on rent.
• Allotment letter from your company if you are residing in company Quarters.
The documents required to be provided by the salaried class are as follows:
• Salary slips for the last one month.
• Appointment letter
• Salary certificate
• Retainer ship agreement, if appointed as consultant.
• From-16 issued by the employer in your name.
Proof of Employment:
The proof of employment is verified by the
• Identity card issued by the employer
• Visiting card.
Employer’s details (in case of private limited companies):
The employer’s details are to be provided in addition to the above documents for documents for a private sector employee, they are:
• Name of promoters / Directors
• Background of promoters / Directors
• Number of employees
• List of branches / factories
• List of clients / Customers
• Turnover of your employer
• Annual reports of your employer for the last two to three years.
The criteria with respect to the private sector employees and employees belonging to the public limited companies is bit more stringent
Min. number of
PF deductions is
> 5 years
Rs. 3 crores p.a
3 years with a Rising trend
For 2 years to be submitted
Through bank credit
PF statement as proof
Rs. 3 crores p.a
2 years with a rising trend
For 2 years to be submitted
PF statement as proof
2 years annual report to be submitted.
The documents required to be submitted by the businessmen as follows:
a. Last three years Profit & Loss Account Statement duly attested by a Charted Accountant
b. Last three years Balance Sheets duly attested by a Chartered Accountant
c. Last three years Income Tax Returns duly filed and certified by Income Tax authorities
Proof of Investments:
1. Bank statements for the last six months of all current accounts.
2. Any other photocopies of investments held, as required by the HFI.
The above are the various documents required by the businessman in addition to the documents, which are common to the entire category.
The businessman is also judged on the basis of the business conducted by him, if his Business profile is in the negative list, he will be thoroughly considered for his credibility before dispersing loan, the organization and property location should not be in the negative list.
These are the additional documents which are required to be looked at before going on for completing the pre sanction formalities with respect to dispersing of the home loans to the business class.
THE PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN HOUSING LOAN EVALUATION
There are a number of parameters on which the housing loans are built:
The tenure of the home loan refers to the time limit for a customer to repay the loan
Generally, the maximum tenure of home loans is 20 years, with a few lenders offering tenure of 20 years or more (ICICI has recently launched a 30 years loan). The longer the tenure, more a customer pays in total interest, but monthly payments will be less.
So depending on the earning potential and bank balance of the customer, an appropriate can be chose. An important requirement of most banks/ HFIs is that they pay up the entire loan before you retire. The customer can always prepay the entire loan amount before it is due.
As long as the tenure goes up a customer pays more interest which is up to 0.25 – 0.5%, generally above the home loan rates.
2. AMOUNT PAID BY THE FINANCER/ MARGIN REQUIREMENTS
The financer does not pay the entire amount of the loan, they request the customer to maintain margin, most banks go in for a 85% funding of the property value including the stamp duty and charges, it however varies among various banks.
This is also treated as the margin money or own contribution required to be put by the prospective loan seeker as the contribution towards the purchase of the house. Most HFIs believe the amount paid is upfront before they release any disbursement.
As a rule of thumb, depending upon the HFC, the prospective loan seeker has to cough up 15% - 20% of the loan amount as a down payment. For smaller amounts, this may not be much. But for figures running into lacks, this could make loads of difference.
For example: An apartment costing Rs. 10lacss may get 85 per cent financing. So, customer has to arrange for the remaining Rs 1.5lacs.
Some banks however make way for the payment for 90% of financing and about 100% financing for some new projects, however they are subjected to a large number of factors and constrains.
3. INTEREST RATES
Without doubt the most important parameter to factor into home loan calculations. The interest rates may vary from institutions to institutions and generally range from about 7.25% - 7.75% to around 9% Repayment is in the form of EMIs (Equated Monthly installments). The longer the tenure, the more you pay in interest, but your monthly payment will be less.
The two kinds of interest rates available to a customer are:
• Fixed interest rates
• Floating interest rates
Fixed interest rates remain fixed over the tenure of the loan.
Floating interest rates are affected by the rates in the market, they fluctuate according to the rates issued or changed by the RBI from time to time.
The finance minister’s diktat on home loans does not hold for private banks. India’s largest home loan provider and second largest bank — ICICI Bank —on Tuesday hiked its home loan by 1%. The bank has also increased its deposit rates.
As per the new rate structure, customer will have to pay 10.5% on the home loans with a floating rate, while the fixed home loan will now invite an interest of 12.5%. With this increase, the monthly installment on an Rs.1lakh loan for 20 years goes up by Rs70.
Some public sector banks do so only once in 12 months while some private sector lenders do it as frequently as a quarter. Though the current interest rate quote maybe lower, over the life of the loan, a customer will be able saved more in the case of a lender who resets your floating rate more frequently.
The investors are also given the option of changing their option from fixed rate loan to a floating rate loan, of course by paying a penalty.
4. MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES:
All banks charge certain amount of processing fee which cannot be ignored, it should be understood that along with monthly payments, the customer should also ensure that he has to pay these charges, so he should careful in choosing his HFC.
Miscellaneous charges generally range around 2.5% to 3%.
A 1% administration fee and 0.8% processing fee on, say RS. 5, 00,000 loan, would amount to RS 10.000. Other times, it could be just one fee (either administration or processing) but could yet work out to be much more if it is considerably higher at, say, 2.5 per cent or 3 per cent. The various other fees, which you are required to be paid along with the margin amount, are:
a) Processing fee:
It’s a fee payable to the lender on applying for a loan. It is either a fixed amount not linked to the loan or may also be a percentage of the loan amount. The loan amount received by customer can be less than the processing fee. It is charged at the submission of the application form and covers expenses incurred for processing the application form.
b) Prepayment Penalties:
When a loan is paid back before the end of the agreed duration a penalty is charged by some banks/companies, which is usually between 1% and 2% of the amount being pre paid.
c) Administrative Fees:
An administrative fee is charged by the HFI on the loan amount sanctioned to customer. This fee is normally payable at a time of accepting the offer letter. It is charged mainly to meet the operating expenses of the loan amount of the entire tenure.
It is quite possible that some lenders may levy a documentation or consultant charge.
In case of ICICI Bank the processing fee is 0.25% of the loan amount and the administrative fee is approximately 0.50% of the loan amount.
It means the method or the calculation by was of which the entire Principal amount/loan amount is paid through the tenure of the loan.
This helps the customer to know what his outstanding principal is at any point of time. There are two methods generally followed:
• Annual rests
• Monthly rests
This is more commonly known as annual reducing balance of the principal/loan amount lent to you. In an annual rest the EMIs (fixed monthly payment for the dispersal of the loan amount) are calculated on a annual basis.
The component of interest is higher in the initial years and later on the component of principal increases and the interest keeps reducing year after years. In other words, the interests in the EMI will keep reducing year after year and the principal component keeps increasing.
This is called monthly reducing balance or principal. The calculation in the above method remains the same as of the above except that the balance is calculated on a monthly basis and the EMI is broken up every month to arrive at the opening balance of the principal for the next month. It is always better for a customer to seek an HFI, which generally has monthly rests, based system; this will reduce the amount of interest paid by the customer. Many banks have adopted to the monthly rests system.
6. REPAYMENT FACILITY
The bank has given three options for repayment of the loan to suit the convenience of Borrower.
Equated Monthly Installments (EMI) uniform monthly installment, inclusive of interest, for the entire repayment of only interest for the first five years, and thereafter in EMI for the next 10 years.
Repayment of only interest in the first five years, 30% principal plus interest in the next five years, and balance 70% plus interest in the remaining period.
Repayment to start on completion of construction, but not later than 18 months from first disbursement and in case built up houses after one month from disbursement. Interest during gestation shall be paid as & when due. The repayment not to extend beyond the age of retirement of the borrower or 70 years whichever is earlier, however where co-borrower is taken, a maximum repayment period of 20 years may be considered provided the loan is liquidated within the age of 70 years of the borrower/ co-borrower having capacity to service the loan.
THE LOAN PROCEDURE FOLLOWED AT ICICI BANK
The procedures involve in the disbursement of home loan by any bank entails the following steps:
• Home loan application form is first submitted by the customer covering all details.
• Checklist of requirements is requested for from the customer, and all documents are required to be submitted (copies), they are then verified whether the details are failed in correctly and whether all the documents are submitted.
• Additional loans, if any are applicable. Many banks provide for supplementary loan as a part of their comprehensive home loan scheme.
The following diagram indicates the loan procedure at the bank
RISK CAPTURING MECHANISM
One of the important aspects in the home loan financing is to ensure that the loan seeker is worthy and credible. ICICI follows the credit score model to male home loan disbursements.
Credit score model is a risk capturing mechanism, which is used to assess the risk perspective of the loan seekers.
The prospective loan seeker is assessed on a number of parameters which helps in the evaluation of his profile and each parameter is assigned a score based on which the decision is taken.
A score of 100 is fixed, and a score of 75 is considered to be good, score of 55 is considered above average and score of 25 to be average. The prospective loan seeker on a scale of 100 is expected to get 55 avail the home loan.
The parameters on which risk is assessed are:
1. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
The demographic profile includes a number of sub-parameters they are basically:
• Educational Qualifications
• Number of Dependents
• Marital status
The demographic profile of the loan seeker is allotted a maximum score of 15.
2. RELATIONSHIP WITH ICICI BANK
The relationship with the bank is also considered for the benefit of its customers.
The sub-parameters considered here are:
• Value of relationship (in terms of deposits)
• Number of years
The relationship with the bank is given a weight of 10 on the total score of 100.
3. INCOME MODEL
The income module of the bank includes parameters such as:
• Gross Eligible Monthly Income
• IRR ( Income to Installment Ratio)
• FOIR (Fixed obligations to income ratio)
• Net take home
The income model is given the highest score of 50 points.
4. STABILITY AND CONTINUITY
The stability and continuity factors are based on
• Organization Profile : Govt. / public sector companies / public limited or private limited companies or partnership or others
• Length of service in Present job / organization.
This module is provided with maximum score of about 15 points.
5. ASSET MODULE
The asset module include factors like
• Net-Worth ( Total assets – Total Liabilities)
The asset module is given a weight of 10 on a scale of 100.
The various parameters of the credit score model and their respective weights are depicted in the following chart.
The abbreviations of the above term are:
DM – Demographic profile
RICICI – Relationship with the ICICI
IM – Income Module
SC – Stability and Continuity
SCRUTINY OF THE DOCUMENTS
The retail processing is a procedure, which involves careful scrutiny of accounts. ICICI Bank uses a specialized system to go through the accounts, before dispersing the loan to the customer. The basic groups set up in the process of loan application are:
RETAIL MANAGER ENTERER GROUP:
This group does the data entry. Upon completion of the data entry the group forwards the same to the RM Verifier group to verify and resends it to the former in case of tiny discrepancies for editing.
The Loan officer enterer group and the RM Verifier group should ensure, confirm and verify the following:
• The organization is in the appropriate list.
• The organization is not in the negative list
• The property location is not in the negative list.
• Name and the personal details
• Identity details Address
• Employment details – salaried
• Financial details: Income asset ownership, Existing bank account details and credit card details
• Employment details: Business
• Financial details: Existing bank accounts and credit card details.
Existing Loan details:
The name of the financial institution (in case of take over) type of loan, purpose of loan amount etc, as per the home loan application form.
Including the disbursement details.
Gee details, loan amount recommended, name of the customer preferred branch.
Entry of at least one reference is mandatory.
The RM enterer group and the RM Verifier group shall affix their initials on the home loan process note.
Upon completion of the above activities, the field investigation, legal opinion and the technical appraisal process shall be initiated by the RM.
The basic scrutiny checks followed by the bank:
• Field investigation study.
• Technical Feasibility
• Legal Feasibility
Field Investigation Study:
The manager RM shall go through the documents and inform the same to the field investigation agency the details:
a) Field Investigation Report:
• Residence and Reference (Tele – Check)
• Name, Address, Office or Business telephone number of the applicant and
• Income Tax return.
The reports are to given on the letterhead of the respective approved agency by their authorized employee with agency’s rubber stamp. The RM should ensure from the field investigation agency in case of Residence and reference (Tele-check)
The details in the report should match with the information given in the home loan application form.
It should be tallied as per the office records.
The manager RM shall make a tele-check to cross verify the investigation made by the agency in case, for the salaried applicants where the disbursement is greater than 10 lacks and in case of the businessman where the disbursement is greater than 10 lacks.
2. LEGAL FEASIBILITY
The bank should arrange for the legal opinion.
The manager RM should forward it to the bank’s empanelled lawyer various documents for scrutiny.
Some of the documents required for the scrutiny by the lawyer are:
• Sale agreement duly registered
• Own contribution receipts
• Allotment letter
• Land documents indicating ownership, if applicable registration receipt
• Possession letter
• Lease agreement, if applicable (Property bought from a development authority)
• No objection certificate from the developer, society or development authority.
• In case of the construction of the house the agreement of construction of the house between the land owner and the contractor.
The above are the list of documents to be referred to by a lawyer. The manger has to provide the copies of the documents should be provided by duly specifying the name of the applicant, particulars of property and list of documents attached.
All correspondence with regard to the legal opinion must be carried forward between the lawyer and the RM only.
3. FINANCIAL SCRUTINY
Prior to disbursement, the HFI also conducts a site visit to the customer’s property to ensure the following:
In case of under construction property:
• Stage of construction is the same as that mentioned in the payment notice given to the builder.
• Quality of construction
• Satisfactory progress of work.
• Lay out of the flats and area of property is within the permission granted by the governing authority
• Requisite certificate have been received by the builder to start the construction at the site.
In case of ready / Resale construction:
• External maintenance of the property.
• Internal maintenance of the property.
• Age of the building
• Whether the building will last the tenure of the loan
• Quality of construction
• There is no existing lien or mortgage on the property
The list of valuation engineers empanelled by the bank need to take up these various documents and ensure that the report is furnished in the prescribed format and that loan amount requested by the applicant is sufficient to complete the project. The details in the property report given by the technical term and compare it with the legal opinion and application and ensure that there are no discrepancies. After completion of the above checks and scrutiny the manager RM must forward the home loan process not along with the home loan application and other enclosures Legal opinion, technical appraisal report, for further processing to the Loan Manager term, after retaining in the customer’s file, copy of the following papers:
• Home loan application
• Legal opinion with all enclosures
• Technical appraisal report
Loan Department has to send the documents and papers to the RM for further scrutiny and processing of the proposals. This would increase the turnaround time, of processing and also additional charge towards the courier charges and also losing the documents in transit, In order to avoid the above discrepancies the documents are verified by the document imaging system.
Newgen document imaging system is introduced to facilitate electronic transmission of documents for processing of proposals by RM.
• It facilitates scanning and maintenance of scanned images.
• It also provides the provision of linking the documents if the same document is required for multiple loans
• Provisions to make remarks, on the document without disturbing the original.
• Scanned images can be attached to any mail
This facilitates easy transmission of data and other documents and also provides the flexibility in loan processing and helps in fast transmission of data, these all advantages helps in easy disbursement of loans.
THE INNOVATIVE LOAN CONCEPTS
1. THE CONCEPT OF SURF
The new concept of SURF is the step up repayment facility, it is a scheme provided to young professionals who have just begun their careers, considering that their repayment capacity will increase steadily in the near future.
The scheme increases the repayment capacity of a customer, his loan eligibility increases as it considers the increase in income of the customer over the next few yeas.
Corporation bank has introduced this SURF concept in its home loan scheme.
Corporation Bank has introduced ‘Corp Flexi Home Loan’ a variant of the housing loan with attractive feature of Progressive Monthly Installment (PMI) i.e. Repayment linked to increase in future salary earnings.
The scheme provides for “step-up installment facility” under Corp Home Scheme. The Corp-Flexi scheme is offered with two options.
Option1: The borrower can opt for higher quantum of loan (130% of eligible amount under the normal scheme) as per the present income criteria with a provision to pay the installments based on current income initially and gradually increases over the latter part of repayment period.
Option 2: The loan shall be considered as per applicant’s normal eligibility with a provision to pay lower installments initially (70% of the normal EMI) and installments are stepped up in the later part of the repayment period.
2. THE HOME SAVER LOANS
Home Saver is a revolutionary new concept in home loans designed to save you interest thereby letting you pay off your loan faster.
The Standard Charted bank offers a special home loan named the “home saver advantage”, the home saver advantage, where the interest rates vary from 7.75 per cent to 8 per cent.
Every month, all you need to do is deposit your surplus funds, be it your salary or other savings into Home Saver, instead of letting them lie idle in different accounts. All this money then works towards reducing you interest payable because the deposits automatically reduce the balance outstanding on which the interest is calculated on a daily basis.
So, more the number of days you place your savings into Home Saver, greater is the interest saving. There is also continuous access to your funds 24 hours a day with the globally valid ATM cum debit card. The loan taker should maintain a deposit account with the bank to avail the home saver advantage.
Unique Features of the home saver:
• Freedom to save more
• Freedom to reduce your loan period
• Freedom to access your money – anytime, anywhere
Home Saver is currently available in Bangalore, Chennai, and Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and pune.
Freedom to save more:
With Home Saver, there is more to save than a normal low-cost home loan. Because interest is calculated on your daily balance, you can reduce your interest cons substantially even if your surplus savings are in the account for only a day. For each day that your outstanding balance reduces, you pay les interest for that day.
Since that’s interest saved not earned, you save on taxes that you would otherwise pay on your interest earned!
Freedom to reduce your loan period:
Home Saver gives you the flexibility and freedom to make excess payments so that you can reduce the duration of your loan anytime, without penalties.
Freedom to access money – Anytime, Anywhere:
You have the flexibility of depositing and withdrawing cash just as you would your normal bank account. Home Saver comes with a globally valid ATM-cum-Debit card, which allows you free to access to your money from over 2000 ATMs across the country Anytime Anywhere.
Citibank also offers a flexi-savings account to reduce your cost of borrowing. The bank will automatically open a Saving Account from which you can give standing instructions to deduct the EMI payments for the loan. You can then prepay the loan at any point in time and be given instant credit for the same, in case you get a large lump-sum annual bonus from your employer.
Should you require money in an emergency at any point you can avail of a over draft on this savings account at an interest rate that is the same as that on your
Home loan. This works out much cheaper than taking an over draft on a normal savings account.
CUSTOMIZED REPAYMENT SCHEMES
HDFC which has been in the home loan segment since 1977 has also introduced a host of new features to its home loan portfolio.
HDFC offers Flexible (Customized) Repayment Schemes, keeping in mind the fact that each individual has a unique problem requiring unique solutions.
HDFC has developed various repayment options like:
• Step Up Repayment Facility
• Flexible Loan Installment
• Balloon Payment Scheme, Where the payment in the initial years is less and the later years are more.
Pari Passu/Second Mortgage Arrangements: HDFC has a tie-up with a large number of Public Sector Organizations and banks which enables us to offer loans to loan seekers with the flexibility of their spouse also having a loan from his/her own employer.
3. INCREASE IN THE TENURE PERIOD OF THE HOME LOANS
The home loans are provided for the period of 5 years to 20 years period.
ICICI is the first of its kind to introduce the home loan scheme for a 20-year period.
ICICI has been the largest private sector bank of the country. It has introduced the concept of providing home loans for a 20-year tenure.
This 20year tenure home loan is available at only fixed rates of interest.
This interest rate structure for the 20-year tenure period for ICICI home loans is as follows:
Tenor Home Loans Floating Rates Fixed Rates
Band Upto Rs.10 lakhs Upto Rs.10 lakhs
A 1 to 5 years 7.25% 8.25%
B Above 5 years, but less than 10 years 7.75% 8.75%
C Above 10 years, but less than 20 years 8.00% 9.00%
HOME LOAN FACILITIES WITH VARIOUS ADD-ON BENEFITS
The banks have buckled for the completion of the home loan products by providing various add-on benefits, which has also become a key factor in the competitive era of home loans.
The banks have also tied up with various property insurance companies in order to make their home loan competitive.
The ABN-AMRO bank which has entered the home loan segment in October 2003, launched its product “All Smiles Home Loans” with the lowest interest rate of 6 percent in the first year and 6.5 per cent in the second year has added a number of value added services like:
• SMS alert to help the customers keep track of their loan sanctions and disbursement status.
• The bank also offers its smart Gold credit card to the borrowers and concessional rates on personal loans and auto loans.
GIC housing finance limited has offered the consumer loans for the purchase of home equipment at the same rates of interest at the of the home loans and lower than the other consumer loans.
The tenure of consumer loans is restricted to the tenure of 5 years.
Many banks have also done away with the guarantor for provision of home loans for amount less than RS.10 lakes, like HSBC housing loan scheme, ICICI bank.
THE FUTURE OF HOME LOANS
In the last 3-4 years the retail finance disbursements are estimated to have increased at CAGR of over 30 per cent to RS. 250 million in the year of 2001-02.
The yield in the housing fiancé is estimated at about 11-12 per cent. With the operating costs and credit losses of 0.5-0.8 percentage points and 0.1 – 0.5 percentage points respectively.
The net margin in the business is expected to be at around 1-1.5 per cent.
Total direct housing disbursements is expected to grow at a CAGR of 2401 per cent during the period 2001-02 to 2006-07 period, to RS. 734.92 billion.
The market share of HFCs is set to decline from 5902 per cent to 5401 per cent. The market shares of the banks are expected to increase from 3408 per cent to 41.4 per cent during the period.
THE FUTURE OF MARKET PLAYERS
The major players in the home loan market are HFCs and the commercial banks and the scheduled commercial banks.
In 2001-02, the incremental disbursements of housing finance companies is estimated have increase by over 17.3 per cent.
The disbursement of leading HFCs has increased over the previous years like HDFC, Can fin homes, over the previous year. However the incremental disbursements of smaller and medium size HFCs have declined by 3.9 percent,
• Increased competition from the banks
• Lower availability of low cost funds
• Tightening interest spreads
The banks aggregate market share of all the banks, in incremental direct disbursement has increased by 10.1 per cent, to 34.8 per cent.
The growth has been largely driven by the cost advantages of banks over HFCs and lower credit off-take from the corporate segment
The banks have the advantage over the HFCs because of the
Access to lower cost retail funds (savings deposits)
The banking sector every year gets about 400 – 450 billion in savings and demand/current deposits, out of which around 75-80 percent is considered core float and are largely long term in nature.
This indicates the scope of increase in disbursements by the banks without significant maturity mismatch risks in comparison to the disbursement by the housing finance industry.
CHANGES IN THE TREND
The market share of the HFCs and the banks in 2000-01 was HFCs holding about 56 per cent and the banks about 44 per cent.
Currently the banks hold about 59 per cent and the HFCs hold about 41 per cent
Limitations of study:
• The study was restricted in understanding the home loan as concept so the practical implications of the study have been difficult.
• The innovative features of the various HFIs as part of their home loan schemes but is not a comprehensive study of their home loan schemes.
• The Take Over home loans of high interest rate for low interest rates and their inherent risks on the banks lending profile has not been undertaken in the study.
• The mortgage home loans and its scope on the home loan lending portfolio were not studied as this would lead into a relatively new kind of home loan segment.
1. The home loan segment can be extended to the lucrative NRI segment; this would provide the bank a cutting edge and larger share of the home loan market.
2. The bank can provide the benefits like SMS alert and other features so as to make the home loans more attractive.
3. The bank can contemplate on decentralizing the operations however taking into consideration the experience and expertise of the members at Loan Department enters.
1. Banking and Financial Systems by A.V.Ranganathachary, K.Anjaneyulu, K.Lalitha
2. Financial Services, A.K.Khan
5. Online Home loan. in/ICICI Bank